linguoboy wrote:Ciarán12 wrote:I'm a bit confused as to how "brionglóid na gréine" is a definite noun phrase. Is it because it contains a definite article (even though the head noun isn't definite)? (Then again, I suppose "briongóild na gréine" could meaning either "a dream of the sun" or "the dream of the sun")
No, it can only mean the latter. Irish (like Welsh and Arabic) has a constraint which disallows repetition of the article in a doubly definite NP. That is, you simply can't say *an bhrionglóid na gréine, only brionglóid na gréine. To express "a dream of the sun" you need to make use of a prepositional phrase, i.e. brionglóid den ghréin.
I see. I knew you couldn't use the definite article twice in a row like that, but I just assumed that there was no way to differentiate definiteness and indefiniteness in the head noun of genitive phrases like that. Just out of curiosity, could one use that prepositional phrase ("brionglóid den ghréin") for definite nouns as well, i.e. "an bhrionglóid den gréin"? (I realise "brionglóid na gréine" sounds a lot more natural though).
linguoboy wrote:Ciarán12 wrote:linguoboy wrote:Ciarán1212 wrote:Also, isn't "brionglóid" in the nominative case, which would make it "bhrionglóid" given that it's a feminine word?
Only when directly preceded by the definite article, which isn't the case here. (See rule 2 under nouns here: http://nualeargais.ie/gnag/lenition.htm#verwend.)
Once again, as soon as I thought I understood something...
So lenition goes on feminine nouns in the nominative and masculine nouns in the genitive, but in both cases only after the article?
No; read through the whole list for an enumeration of cases where indefinite nouns are lenited. The common feature is that they need to follow something, whether it be an article, a particle, another noun, etc.
Okay, I've read the list, and as an attempt to make the information as digestible as possible, I've tried to come up with an example sentence for each rule, so that I can just memorise the sentences.
Here's what the website said...
nualeargais.ie wrote:Lenition is the grammatical rule of the beginning of a word that:
1- after the vocative particle a: a Cháit!
2- feminine nouns in the nominative after the article an (except d, t) in the case of s: s becomes ts (if s precedes a vowel or l,n,r)
3- masculine nouns in the genitive after the article an (except d, t) in the case of s: s becomes ts (if s precedes a vowel or l,n,r)
4- in indefinite genitive attributes after a feminine noun and after the weak plural (but there are many exceptions, more under the section about the genitive)
5- those definite nouns and proper names as a genitive attribute without an article (no matter if the antecedent is masc. or fem.): muintir Cháit = Kate's parents, stáisiún bhus a trí = the Bus #3 stop
6- because it is never possible that 2 genitives come after one another, the first is only lenited and remains in the nominative ("functional genitive")(gender irrespective): e.g. obair bhean an tí = housewife's work, Lá Fheile Pádraig = St.Patrick's Day (lit. "Day of the Feast of Patrick")
7- a noun attribute in compound words (if the 2nd part is not in the genitive): scian phóca = pocket knife
8- a noun in the after numbers 1-6 (but not after 3-6, if the noun that follows is in the plural) after aon also s becomes ts
9- after beirt, dís (2 people), but not after triúr etc.!
10- after an chéad (the first), but not after an dara, an tríú, etc.!
11- after possessive pronouns mo, do, a (a only if it is the 3rd person sg. masc)
12- after a preposition if it lacks an article ar, ó, do, de, faoi, idir, mar, roimh, thrí, thar, gan
(after ar, idir, gan, see there)
13- after don, den in the case of s : s becomes ts (in the standard and in Connacht only the fem. nouns)
14- after sa(n) in the standard, Ulster and Munster (always in Connacht, in Munster in the case of f , eclipsis instead)
15- in Ulster always after preposition + article
16- after uile (= everyone)
17- in surnames after Ní, Uí, Mhic, Nic but not after Ó, Mac
...and here are my example sentences for each of the rules (where I have an ellipsis it means I didn't understand the rule well enough to attempt an example sentence)
1.Cad a rinne tú, a Cháit?
2.Bhí an bhrionglóid go dona, ach bhí an fear go hálainn!
3.Cá bhfuil hata an fhir? Faoi chos an cathaoir.
5.Bhí muintir Chiaráin ag dul go dtí stáisiún bhus a trí.
6.Ba é Lá Fhéile Pádraig, ach ní raibh an obair bhean an tí críochnaithe go fóill.
7.Cad a rinne tú le mo scian phóca, a Mhurchadh?
9.“Bhí beirt phólíní ann, táim cinnte faoi.” “Ní raibh, ní raibh ach duine pólín ann”
10.An chéad sheachtain ina dhiadh sin, bhí sé uafásach ar fad, ach ní raibh an dara seachtain ná an tríú seachtain chomh dona.
11.“Is mo bhróg í sin, ní do bhróg.” “Ní hea, is a bhróg í. Bróg Sheáin. Agus is iad a barriallacha. Bhí siad i bhur theach, ach is ár bharriallacha iad. Agus anois agus
atáim ag féachaint orthu, tá a gcinn cailte!”
12.Bhí siad ag aistriú ó bhaile go baile an t-am ar fad.
13.Sheol mé é don chonsalacht, agus sheol siad é don bosca brúscair.
14.Bhí sí ina suí sa chathaoir a raibh san sheomra suite.
16.Tá imeachtaí den uile chineál ag tarlú ar fud na hEorpa
17.Tá Bean Ní Chartúir, Bean Uí Chonaill, Bean Mhic Choisdealbha agus Sharon Nic Shiacais sa sheomra suite.
Are these correct, and do they accurately and unambiguously show the rules they are meant to exemplify? Also, could you give me examples of rules 4 and 8? I don't really mind about 15, I'm not learning to speak Ulster Irish.