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Azeri grammar checklist - UniLang

Azeri grammar checklist

Moderator: eskandar

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Limagne
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Azeri grammar checklist

Postby Limagne » 2012-05-03, 15:40

Well, given the fact that there's no easily available quick to read and clear grammar guide for Azerbaijani on the web, I thought we could roll up our sleeves and try to make one ourselves.

Oh, nothing too serious. Ideally, we would be writting what I would call an Azerbaijani grammar checklist. A sort of short and synthetic sheet which we could use as a quick and handy reference tool when dealing with authentic native Azerbaijani materials. By no means something extensive. We could expose as much as possible on the intricacies of the syntax since the morphology of Azerbaijani isn't particularly complicated. Plus it'd be a really good thing to eventually have all the various suffixes and postpositions listed in one place.

I've already started to compile a few lists taken from what I could find in my personal notes, so there might be mistakes. I'll try to find more example sentences in the coming days too. It'd be better if we put at least two example sentences under each grammatical item.

Of course everyone is encouraged to improve the lists and complete them freely !

More posts on adverbs and participles will follow later :wink:
Last edited by Limagne on 2012-05-03, 16:51, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Azerbaijani grammar checklist

Postby Limagne » 2012-05-03, 15:41

Postpositions

1) Location and direction

Requiring the use of the genitive
Axırında = at the end of
Bu ayın axırında qanun müzakirə olunacaq. 
The law will be discussed at the end of this month.
Kitabın axırında gözəl sözlər yazılıb.
Beautiful words are written at the end of the book.

Altında = under
Birdən ağacın altında parıldayan, qızıl bir xoruz gördü.
Suddenly he saw a shining golden roaster under the tree.
İkinci Dünya Müharibəsində Paris alman işgalı altında olarkən ibrətamiz bir olayın yaşandığı deyilir.
An edifying event is said to have occured while he was living in Paris under the the German occupation during World War II.

Arasında = between
Rusiya və Belarus martın 29-da iki paytaxt arasında təyyarə uçuşlarının bərpası məsələsini müzakirə edəcəklər.
Russia and Belarus will discuss the restoration of flights between the tow capitals on March 29.
Sizcə, Washington indi Iranla Azərbaycan arasında yaşanan gərginlikdən narahatdırmı?
In your opinion, is Washington now concerned about the existing tensions between Iran and Azerbaijan?

Arxasında = behind
Əfqanıstandakı son hücumların arxasında Pakistanın şimal-qərbində fəaliyyət göstərən Hakkani qrupu durur.
The Haqqani group active in the North-West of Pakistan is behind the last attacks in Afghanistan.
BMT-nin Təhlükəsizlik Şurası Fələstinin ərizəsini bağlı qapılar arxasında müzakirə edib.
The Security Council of the UN has examined the petition of Palestine behind closed doors.

Bayırında = outside of
Kazinonun bayırında Rusiya nömrəsi olan qara rəngli limuzinlər dayanır.
Outside of the casino, limousines with black Russian number plates are waiting.

Ətrafında = on the side of / around / about
Toğrul Nərimanbəyovun dəfni ətrafında baş verən qalmaqal...
The uproar which took place around Toghrul Narimanbeyov's burial...

Fonunda = in the background of, in the context of
İnsident son günlər Pakistanla Hndistan arasında vəziyyətin gərginləşməsi fonunda baş verir.
The incident took place in the context of an aggravating situation between India and Pakistan in recent days.

İçində = inside
Məscidin içində Allahı axtardım.
I used to look for God inside mosquees.

Qabağında = in front of
Bu gün onu gördüm... - Harda? - Metronun qabağında.
I saw him/her today... - Where ? - In front of the metro station.

Qarşısında = opposite, in front of
Bir kişi polis idarəsinin qarşısında özünü yandırıb.
One man burnt himself in front of the police station.

Ortasında = in the middle of
Maaşını alan günü kəndin ortasında, yığnaqda deyib: "Kim proletardırsa, əlini qaldırsın".
On payday in the middle of the village, he said to the crowd : whoever is a proletarian raise your hand".

Önündə = in front of, ahead of
Evinin önündə bıçaqla qətlə yetirilib.
He was stabbed to death in front of his house.

Ucqarında = in the outskirts of
Bakının üst ucqarında yaşayıram.
I live in the upper outskirts of Baku.

Üstündə = on, on top of
Qardaşının məzarı üstündə aclıq aksiyasına başlayıb.
He started a hunger strike on his brother's grave.

Yaxınlığında = near
Kuveyk çayı yaxınlığında öldürülənlərin hamısının əlləri arxadan bağlı olub.
All those murdered near the Kuveyk river had both hands tied behind their back.

Yanında = next to, near
Mən də evimizin yanında minaya düşdüm.
I stepped on a mine next to our house too.

2) Time

Requiring the use of the genitive
Ərzində = during
2013-cü ilin 8 ayı ərzində Bakıda 646 yol-nəqliyyat hadisəsi baş verib.

Requiring the use of the ablative
Bəri = since
Əvvəl = before 
İrəlidə = before, ahead of
Qabaq = before 

3) Other

Aid (+ dative) = concerning, about

Artıq (+ ablative) = more than
Suriyada 50-dən artıq adam öldürülüb.
In Syria, more than 50 people have been murdered.
Misirdə 20 mindən artıq siyasi məhbus azadlığa çıxıb.
In Egypt more than 20 thousand politic prisoners have been freed.

Az qalmış = near, next to, close to, around, short before
Səhərə az qalmış, sübh namazından az əvvəl balaca oğlum yuxudan oyanır.
My son wakes up around dawn, short before the morning prayer.
Dərslərin başlamasına az qalmış Amala gəlib bir-iki gün də yaylaqda dincələrdi.
Short before the beginning of the classes, he came to Amal and rested two or three days in the summer house.

Barədə (+ nominative) = about
İran nüvə silahı istehsal etmək barədə qərar qəbul etməyib.
Iran didn't arrive at a decision about the production of nuclear weapons.
İsrail İrana zərbə barədə müstəqil qərar çıxaracaq.
Israel will take an independant decision about the strike on Iran.

Barəsində (+ genitive) = about
Başqa (+ ablative) = other than, except
Boyu (+ nominative) = along
Boyunca (+ nominative) = along
Can/cən (+ dative) = until, till
Dair (+ dative) = about, on, concerning
Dək (suffixed directly to the noun) = until, till
Doğru (+ dative) = towards, to
Əsasən (+ dative) = according to
Əvəzinə (+ genitive) = instead of
Gəlincə (+ dative) = as to, as regards
Görə (+ dative) = because of, due to, for / according to
Haqqda (+ nominative) = on, about
Haqqında (+ genitive) = on, about
İlə (+ genitive of personal pronouns) = with, along with / along (a riverbank...)
Kimi (+ nominative/dative/genitive) = like, as / until
Qədər (+ nominative/genitive) = until ; as much as
Nəticəsində (+ genitive) = due to, because of
Nəzdində (+ genitive) = attached to
Ötrü (+ ablative) = for, because of, on account of
Sarı (+ dative) = towards, to
Sonra (+ nominative/ablative) = after
Tərəf (+ dative) = towards, to
Uğrunda (+ nominative) = for (one's country, one's family...)
Uzunu (+ nominative) = along
Üçün (+ genitive of personal pronouns) = for
Üzrə (+ nominative) = according to
Yerinə (+ genitive) = instead of (someone)
Yolu ilə (+ genitive) = with the use of
Last edited by Limagne on 2013-09-07, 10:33, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Azerbaijani grammar checklist

Postby Limagne » 2012-05-13, 12:28

Gerunds, participles and other verbal constructions

-mək üçün = in order to + verb
-dik + possessive suffix + zaman/vaxt = when + verb
-dikdə = when, as + verbe
-dik üçün = since, as, for
-dik + suffixe possessif + dan = since
-dik dan sonra = after + verb
-dığı kimi = like + verb
-dıqca = the more + verb
-dik yerdə = when, while
-dikdən əvvəl = before + verb

-andan = since/for + present perfect
-anda = when, as, while + verb
-an kimi = as soon as + verb
-adan sonra = after + verb
-ana qədər = until + verb
-madan/mədən = without + verb
-an/ən = may replace -dik and function as an object participle

verb-ırsa + verb-sın = no matter how + verb
nə + -sa = whatever, however + verb
-sa da = even though, although

-kən (invariable) = while, as
-araq/-ərək = verb + -ing

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Re: Azerbaijani grammar checklist

Postby Limagne » 2012-09-11, 9:47

Conjugation

Əmr şəkli

Imperative mood. Used to express :
* an order (istəmək, buyurmaq, hökm vermək...)
* a request (xahiş etmək...)
* a suggestion (təklif etmək...)
* an advise (məsləhət görmək...)
* an admonition (nəsihət vermək...)
* a permission (icazə vermək...)
* a strong possibility (ola bilsin ki...)

No suffix is needed.
Vowel harmony : ı/i/u/ü

Yazım - Yaz - Yazsın - Yazıq - Yazın - Yazsınlar

Xəbər şəkli

Indicative mood. Has hree tenses :
* keçmiş zaman
* indiki zaman
* gələcəyək zaman

1) Keçmiş zaman

-> Şühudi keçmiş zamani (action whose completion is certain)
Yazdım - Yazdın - Yazdı - Yazdıq - Yazdınız - Yazdılar

-> Nəqli keçmiş zamani (action whose completion hasn't been seen by the speaker himself)
Yazmışam - Yazmışsan - Yazmışdır - Yazmışıq - Yazmışsiniz - Yazmışlar

-> Past perfect
Yazmışdım - Yazmışdın - Yazmışdı - Yazmışdıq - Yazmışdınız - Yazmışdılar

-> Imperfect (habitual and repetitive action in the past)
Yazırdım - Yazırdın - Yazırdı - Yazırdıq - Yazırdınız - Yazırdılar

-> Aorist (used to + verb)
Yazardım - Yazardın - Yazardı - Yazardıq - Yazardınız - Yazardılar

2) İndiki zaman

Note that the negative is formed with the affix mı/mi/mu/mü (while it's mə/ma for all the other tenses).

Yazıram - Yazırsan - Yazır - Yazırıq - Yazırsınız - Yazırlar

3) Gələcəyək zaman

-> Qəti gələcək zamani (definite future)
Yazacağam - Yazacaqsan - Yazacaq - Yazacağıq - Yazacaqsınız - Yazacaqlar

-> Qeyri-qəti gələcək zaman (indefinite future)
Yazaram - Yazarsan - Yazar - Yazarıq - Yazarsıniz - Yazarlar

For the 2nd and 3rd persons the negative suffix -maz/-məz is used instead of -mar/-mər.

-> Future in the past
Yazacaqdım - Yazacaqdın - Yazacaqdı - Yazacaqdıq - Yazacaqdınız - Yazacaqdılar

Arzu şəkli

Optative mood. Conveys a wish or a strong desire. Often used with particles like gərək, kaş, təki, bircə...

-> Present
Yazam - Yazasan - Yaza - Yazaq - Yazasınız - Yazalar

-> Past
Yazaydım - Yazaydın - Yazaydı - Yazaydıq - Yazaydınız - Yazaydılar

Vacib şəkli

Necessitative mood. Corresponds to English modal verbs such as 'must' and 'have to'.

Yazmalıyam - Yazmalısan - Yazmalıdır - Yazmalıyıq - Yazmalısınız - Yazmalıdırlar

Lazım şəkli

Describes an action whose completion is needed.

Yazasıyam - Yazasısan - Yazasıdır - Yazasıyıq - Yazasısınız - Yazasıdırlar

Şərt şəkli

Conditional mood. The use of əgər (if) is optional.

-> Present
Yazsam - Yazsan - Yazsa - Yazsaq - Yazsanız - Yazsalar

-> Past
Yazsaydım - Yazsaydın - Yazsaydı - Yazsaydıq - Yazsaydınız - Yazsaydılar

Source : http://kayzen.az/blog/Az%C9%99rbaycan-dili/

Selda
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Re: Azerbaijani grammar checklist

Postby Selda » 2013-05-23, 0:07

You may find some grammar tips on http://neise.0rq.in/learn-azeri

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Re: Azerbaijani grammar checklist

Postby Limagne » 2013-05-24, 8:35

Thanks for the link!

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Re: Azerbaijani grammar checklist

Postby Meera » 2013-05-25, 18:01

Wow Limagne, this is a great guide. Thanks.
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Re: Azeri grammar checklist

Postby seacliff » 2014-05-13, 6:07

I understand that this thread is was written a while ago, but I have a few questions:

1. What's the difference between "əvvəl" and "qabaq" ? Or are they interchangeable?

2. What’s the difference between the “Vacib şəkli” and “Lazım şəkli” Is the second simply an intensification of the first?

3. How are the “Qəti gələcək zaman (definite future)” and “Qeyri-qəti gələcək zaman (indefinite future)” used?

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Re: Azeri grammar checklist

Postby evrendede » 2014-06-02, 7:21

seacliff wrote:I understand that this thread is was written a while ago, but I have a few questions:

1. What's the difference between "əvvəl" and "qabaq" ? Or are they interchangeable?

2. What’s the difference between the “Vacib şəkli” and “Lazım şəkli” Is the second simply an intensification of the first?

3. How are the “Qəti gələcək zaman (definite future)” and “Qeyri-qəti gələcək zaman (indefinite future)” used?


I'm not an Azeri expert but try to answer your questions.

1- qabaq probably means "front", it's a synonym of "ön". "əvvəl" means before. so according to context, they may be interchangable. qabaq also means "pumpkin" and "cover" of something. "front" meaning may have come from "cover" meaning.

2- As far as I understood, vacib means a must-to-do and lazım means "something needed". So they are like must and should in English, respectively. Vacib is more intense, lazım is lighter.

3- I can think of a use case for that. Sorry I will use Turkish instead of Azari but the logic is the same. For example a mother says to her son: "Ödevini ne zaman yapacaksın?" ("When are you going to do your homework?") And the son answers: "Yaparım bir ara" ("I will do at some time"). So the time is not exact, even he will or will not do is not exact. This time case is never thought in Turkish, because first it's an informal usage, second it's main usage is in simple present tense, this meaning is secondary. I wonder if it's the same in Azeri or not.

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Re: Azeri grammar checklist

Postby seacliff » 2014-06-06, 13:52

So the qəti always goes with a specific time, and the qeyri-qəti doesn't? Is that what makes them definite and indefinite? Or am I misunderstanding?


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