(NOAD)1. A small to medium-sized primate that typically has a long tail, most kinds of which live in trees in tropical countries. ● Families Cebidae and Callitrichidae (or Callithricidae) (New World monkeys, with prehensile tails), and Cercopithecidae (Old World monkeys, without prehensile tails).
2. (in general use) any primate.
(NOAD)▶ noun a large primate that lacks a tail, including the gorilla, chimpanzees, orangutan, and gibbons. See also great ape, gibbon. ● Families Pongidae and Hylobatidae.
• used in names of macaque monkeys with short tails, e.g., Barbary ape.
• (in general use) any monkey.
You're correct: speaking purely in cladistic terms, apes would be a kind of monkey, and humans would be a kind of ape. However, like "reptile" and "dinosaur", these terms have been defined paraphyletically, so that not all branches from a common ancestor are included. So in practice, "monkey" means "any simian that's not a hominoid", and "ape" means "any hominoid that's not a human".Mars80 wrote:Does it include apes? I would say cladistically speaking apes are a type of monkey. "Simian" is a synonym for "monkey" much like "hominoid" is a synonym for "ape". I remember somewhere where I saw it stated that it was incorrect to refer to a chimpanzee as a "monkey" and that seemed strange to me, because cladistically speaking it makes sense to refer to chimps as monkeys.
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