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Odd declensions in modern Greek - UniLang

Odd declensions in modern Greek

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ego
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Odd declensions in modern Greek

Postby ego » 2006-03-25, 18:04

IRREGULAR AND ODD DECLENSIONS IN GREEK

I tried to make such a list but I never thought it would be so hard.. There are many debatable elements in declension. I bought Triantaphyllidis' grammar which is considered the base of the modern language, but I was amazed about some things written there. For example he claims it is not sure if adjectives in -ης have genitive sing. but everyone knows that they do and it is usually in -ους. His grammar was written many decades ago, before WWII (1938-1941 I think), when demotike was not an official language, not taught at schools, not officially cultivated. So, it was not very clear what belongs to demotike and what to katharevousa. Since then things have become clear and some are revised.
Anyway, if someone has anything to add or correct here, I am open to discuss it. I will start with some first nouns and adjectives and I will add more every time I think of some.

Το όρος – the mountain

Singular

Nom. όρος
Gen. όρους
Acc. όρος
Voc. όρος

Plural

Nom. όρη
Gen. ορέων
Acc. όρη
Voc. όρη

Η ισχύς – the strength

Singular

Nom. ισχύς
Gen. ισχύος
Acc. ισχύ
Voc. ισχύς

Plural

Nom. -
Gen. -
Acc. -
Voc. –

Ο μυς – the muscle

Singular

Nom. μυς
Gen. μυός
Acc. μυ
Voc. μυ

Plural

Nom. μύες
Gen. μυών
Acc. μυς
Voc. μύες

Ο πρύτανης – the rector

Singular

Nom. πρύτανης
Gen. πρύτανη
Acc. πρύτανη
Voc. πρύτανη

Plural

Nom. πρυτάνεις
Gen. πρυτάνεων
Acc. πρυτάνεις
Voc. πρυτάνεις


Το δόρυ – the spear

Singular

Nom. δόρυ
Gen. δόρατος
Acc. δόρυ
Voc. δόρυ

Plural

Nom. δόρατα
Gen. δοράτων
Acc. δόρατα
Voc. δόρατα


Ο βραχύς – the short (adj. masc.)

Singular

Nom. βραχύς
Gen. βραχέος
Acc. βραχύ
Voc. βραχύ

Plural

Nom. βραχείς
Gen. βραχέων
Acc. βραχείς
Voc. βραχείς


Ένας – one (masc.)

Singular

Nom. ένας
Gen. ενός
Acc. ένα(ν)
Voc. -

Plural

Nom. -
Gen. -
Acc. -
Voc. –


Ένα – one (neut.)

Singular

Nom. ένα
Gen. ενός
Acc. ένα
Voc. -

Plural

Nom. -
Gen. -
Acc. -
Voc. –


In the declension of κάποιος (someone), κανένας (nobody, anyone), ένας (one), the archaic final
–ν in accusative singular is often maintained, no matter what the next consonant is:

Singular

Nom. κάποιος
Gen. κάποιου
Acc. κάποιον (it is more often used and better sounding than κάποιο)
Voc. -
Last edited by ego on 2007-11-20, 13:17, edited 2 times in total.

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Postby Ioannes » 2006-04-20, 14:04

Why not add irregular adjectives as πολλοί-πολλές-πολλά?

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Postby ego » 2006-05-04, 18:51

Ο πολύς - the "many", numerous (adj. masc.)

Singular

Nom. πολύς
Gen. πολλού
Acc. πολύ
Voc. -

Plural

Nom. πολλοί
Gen. πολλών
Acc. πολλούς
Voc. -


Το πολύ (neutral)

Singular

Nom. πολύ
Gen. πολλού
Acc. πολύ
Voc. -

Plural

Nom. πολλά
Gen. πολλών
Acc. πολλά
Voc. -


According to Manolis Triandafyllidis' grammar, this adjective has no genitive singular and the one I gave is "ancient". Οthers claim it is modern as well. I cannot think of a sentence where it would be useful anyway.

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Postby ego » 2006-05-06, 23:45

Ποιος - Who (interrog. masc.)

Singular

Nom. ποιος
Gen. ποιου
Acc. ποιον
Voc. -

Plural

Nom. ποιοι
Gen. ποιων
Acc. ποιους
Voc. -

The oddity here is that the ancient final -v of accusative singular is retained always, unlike the vast majority of modern nouns and adjectives that have lost it. The pronouns όποιος ("whoever") and κάποιος (someone) follow the same motive.

Ποιον είδες; - Whom did you see?
Ποιον θέλετε; - Whom do you want?

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Postby Dimakos » 2006-05-07, 7:56

I'm adding one more "Ο Επικεφαλής". Its declension is surprisingly easy for a Greek word (although in the past few years, many tended to decline this wrongly).

Ο επικεφαλής - "the one in charge" (adj. masc., fem., neut.,)

Singular

Nom. ο επικεφαλής
Gen. του επικεφαλής
Acc. τον επικεφαλής
Voc. επικεφαλής

Plural

Nom. οι επικεφαλής
Gen. των επικεφαλής
Acc. τους επικεφαλής
Voc. επικεφαλής

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Postby ego » 2006-05-09, 20:52

Το καθεστώς - The regime

Singular

Nom. καθεστώς
Gen. καθεστώτος
Acc. καθεστώς
Voc. καθεστώς

Plural

Nom. καθεστώτα
Gen. καθεστώτων
Acc. καθεστώτα
Voc. καθεστώτα

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Postby ego » 2006-05-09, 23:15

The vocative of the word διευθυντής (director, administrator, head, principal) is διευθυντά in ancient Greek and διευθυντή in modern Greek. But for some reason, probably because of katharevousa influence, the ancient vocative is prefered today by most speakers. So you will hear more often κύριε διευθυντά than κύριε διευθυντή

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Postby Dimakos » 2006-05-10, 15:53

The same applies also for the words πρεσβευτής (ambassador), εκπαιδευτής (trainer), καθηγητής (professor) and διοικητής (commander).

Nom. O Πρεσβευτής
Voc. Πρεσβευτά

Nom. Ο Εκπαιδευτής
Voc. Εκπαιδευτά

Nom. Ο Καθηγητής
Voc. Καθηγητά

Nom. Ο Διοικητής
Voc. Διοικητά

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Postby ego » 2006-05-16, 15:28

Ο γόης - The charmer

Singular

Nom. γόης
Gen. γόη
Acc. γόη
Voc. γόη

Plural

Nom. γόητες
Gen. γοήτων
Acc. γόητες
Voc. γόητες

I am not very sure about genitive plural :oops:

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Postby Dimakos » 2006-05-18, 15:37

ego wrote: I am not very sure about genitive plural :oops:


This way of declension is also in use:

Plural

Nom. γόηδες
Gen. γόηδων
Acc. γόηδες
Voc. γόηδες

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Postby HSapiens » 2006-09-22, 0:55

@dimakos who said
'I'm adding one more "Ο Επικεφαλής". Its declension is surprisingly easy for a Greek word (although in the past few years, many tended to decline this wrongly).'

επικεφαλής is an adverb and always used in adverbial function
its not a noun, nor an adjective
when someone says:
'ο επικεφαλής' the noun implied is 'άνθρωπος' or 'άνδρας' or whatever

so as an adverb, it is not declined anyway

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Postby ego » 2006-09-22, 9:37

HSapiens wrote:@dimakos who said
'I'm adding one more "Ο Επικεφαλής". Its declension is surprisingly easy for a Greek word (although in the past few years, many tended to decline this wrongly).'

επικεφαλής is an adverb and always used in adverbial function
its not a noun, nor an adjective
when someone says:
'ο επικεφαλής' the noun implied is 'άνθρωπος' or 'άνδρας' or whatever

so as an adverb, it is not declined anyway


Yes you are right, but I guess Dimakos added it because it's use resembles to that of an adjective and many people mistaken it.

Φαντάζομαι ότι είσαι Έλληνας, σωστά; Καλωσήρθες στο φόρουμ, ελπίζω να το βρεις ενδιαφέρον :)

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Postby ego » 2006-10-02, 8:01

Ο γέρος - The old man

Nom. γέρος
Gen. γέρου
Acc. γέρο
Voc. γέρο

One would expect a vocative in -ε but it's in -o. I think the reason is that the word γέρος derives from ancient γέρων whose vocative was γέρον. So the vocative had always an -ο ending and I don't think that a form in -ε, like "γέρε" was ever created

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Postby ego » 2006-10-16, 12:50

Feminine words ending in -η derive from two different groups:

1. Those ending in -η in ancient Greek too (like κόρη)
2. Those that ended in -ις in ancient Greek (like πόλη).

There's no way to guess which group every word belongs to.

Their singular declension is identical but in genitive those of the second group have a second possible form: in -εως:

πόλη (city) - gen. πόλης or πόλεως
δύναμη (strength, power) - gen. δύναμης or δυνάμεως
τάξη (class, order) - gen. τάξης or τάξεως

The genitive in -εως is ancient. Today it's mostly used in formal language and texts. I wasn't sure if it's modern Greek and wether I should include it in this thread. But in the grammar books it is enlisted as a second form of genitive in the modern language, so I decided to notice wether people around me use it when speaking or not, and indeed some of my friends did and it didn't sound strange or posh, so I decided to enlist it. It's sure you will find such forms often, mostly in texts but sometimes in oral language too.

Note the shift of stress in δύναμη --> δυνάμεως.

In the plural, words of the first group make their plural in -ες and those of the second in -εις:

κόρη --> κόρες, gen. κορών
ορμή --> ορμές, gen. ορμών

πόλη --> πόλεις, gen. πόλεων
δύναμη --> δυνάμεις, gen. δυνάμεων
τάξη --> τάξεις, gen. τάξεων

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Postby outis » 2006-10-17, 0:48

Good work, ego! Just one thing:

ego wrote:Feminine words ending in -η derive from two different groups:

1. Those ending in -η in ancient Greek too (like κόρη)
2. Those that ended in -ις in ancient Greek (like πόλη).

There's no way to guess which group every word belongs to.


I think, with the exception of πόλη and δύναμη, all the other words in the second group end either in -ση (e.g. λύση=solution), -ξη (e.g. πράξη=act) , or -ψη (e.g. λήψη=receiving).

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Postby outis » 2006-10-17, 1:12

ego wrote:
HSapiens wrote:επικεφαλής is an adverb and always used in adverbial function
its not a noun, nor an adjective
when someone says:
'ο επικεφαλής' the noun implied is 'άνθρωπος' or 'άνδρας' or whatever

so as an adverb, it is not declined anyway


Yes you are right, but I guess Dimakos added it because it's use resembles to that of an adjective and many people mistaken it.


The confusion apparently comes from the fact that it is written as one word. Some linguists have proposed that it should be written as two words: επί κεφαλής (=at the head of). They are probably right.

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Postby Ioannes » 2006-10-17, 5:07

outis wrote:
ego wrote:
HSapiens wrote:επικεφαλής is an adverb and always used in adverbial function
its not a noun, nor an adjective
when someone says:
'ο επικεφαλής' the noun implied is 'άνθρωπος' or 'άνδρας' or whatever

so as an adverb, it is not declined anyway


Yes you are right, but I guess Dimakos added it because it's use resembles to that of an adjective and many people mistaken it.


The confusion apparently comes from the fact that it is written as one word. Some linguists have proposed that it should be written as two words: επί κεφαλής (=at the head of). They are probably right.


Eh, why are they probably right?

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Postby ego » 2006-10-17, 14:28

Ioannes wrote:
outis wrote:
ego wrote:
HSapiens wrote:επικεφαλής is an adverb and always used in adverbial function
its not a noun, nor an adjective
when someone says:
'ο επικεφαλής' the noun implied is 'άνθρωπος' or 'άνδρας' or whatever

so as an adverb, it is not declined anyway


Yes you are right, but I guess Dimakos added it because it's use resembles to that of an adjective and many people mistaken it.


The confusion apparently comes from the fact that it is written as one word. Some linguists have proposed that it should be written as two words: επί κεφαλής (=at the head of). They are probably right.


Eh, why are they probably right?


I think they're right too. Simply because they are indeed two words: επί ("on") and κεφαλής (genitive of "head"), so it means "on head". There is a trend lately, expressions of ancient Greek that are used in modern Greek and consist of a preposition + a noun to be written as one word. There are many such examples: αφενός, αφετέρου, επικεφαλής and more that I can't remember right now. Personally I find it ridiculous and I often don't do it. It's like writting something without understanding what it is and it leads to wrong use like the use of επικεφαλής. It looks like an adjective and most people think it is and they decline it: nom. επικεφαλής, gen. επικεφαλούς, acc. επικεφαλή, nom. pl. επικεφαλείς, gen. pl. επικεφαλών. All these forms are wrong as it's actually an adjective and it cannot be declined.

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Postby ego » 2006-10-17, 14:30

outis wrote:Good work, ego! Just one thing:

ego wrote:Feminine words ending in -η derive from two different groups:

1. Those ending in -η in ancient Greek too (like κόρη)
2. Those that ended in -ις in ancient Greek (like πόλη).

There's no way to guess which group every word belongs to.


I think, with the exception of πόλη and δύναμη, all the other words in the second group end either in -ση (e.g. λύση=solution), -ξη (e.g. πράξη=act) , or -ψη (e.g. λήψη=receiving).


Welcome to the forum outis. Very musical nickname you have. I never heard of those endings before. Thanks for contributing

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Postby ego » 2006-10-17, 15:00

Male nouns in -έας usually derive from ancient in -εύς:

ancient ο γραμματεύς --> modern ο γραμματέας ("secretary")

Their genitive is normal: του γραμματέα

However when they're used as feminine (they have no separate female forms), they use the ancient genitive in -έως:

η γραμματέας --> της γραμματέως (female secretary)
η συγγραφέας --> της συγγραφέως (female author)
etc


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