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Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord - UniLang

Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

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Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-08-24, 2:42

Since I’m on holidays this month, I decided to spend some time with languages that, although I’ve always been interested in, I usually lack enough time to dedicate myself to. After thinking of it for a while, Æren sort of help me decide on Lithuanian, and so I’ve arranged my long saved materials on it and have been reading about it and studying it for the past couple of days, back to the early basics. Needless to say all sorts of questions have started popping out in my head from day one, hence my deciding to finally create this thread.

The question I have in mind right now is probably both very basic and somewhat tricky. It has got to do with dealing with accentuation patterns in verbs. I’ve just read about how Lithuanian verbs in the Simple Present (esamasis laikas) can be roughly divided into two groups according to their accentuation – those the forms of which have root/stem stress throughout (e.g. mylėti), and those in which the stress shifts to the ending in the 1st and 2nd person singular (e.g. rinkti).

Now, I’ve read some theory on the topic. With unprefixed verbs, for instance, it seems that, if the root/stem stress is acute, then it does not move; if it’s circumflex or grave (with some exceptions), then it does. But let me skip things a little bit to another related point…

Needless to say there aren’t particularly good bilingual dictionaries of Lithuanian online, especially if one expects to draw information on accentuation from them. When it comes to monolingual dictionaries, though, it seems the best choices one can find are Dabartinės lietuvių kalbos žodynas and Lietuvių kalbos žodynas, and so, just out of curiosity, I’m trying to learn how to derive as much information as possible from their entries. When it came to verbs, then, I realised something – neither seems to indicate in any ways how accentuation may vary through the conjugation. If I look rinkti up, for instance, they give me, respectively:

  • riñk‖ti, reñka, ~o
  • riñkti, reñka (riñka LD338(Zt)), -o tr. Q326, H157, R, Sut, I, M

That is, the standard three forms from which one derives the stems, but nothing else – or at least nothing I can identify that tells me that the 1st and 2nd person singular are renkù and renkì. Does that mean that it’s indeed easy to know which verbs shift stress and which don’t? Or does that mean such dictionaries just won’t get down to this detail in particular and I have to learn it from somewhere else?
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Rokas » 2013-08-30, 20:26

The info is there, you just need to learn to "decode" it. The forms that are listed in dictionary entries are the three principal verb forms, the Infinitive, the third person Present Simple and the third person Past Simple. These forms will be accented for you in those dictionary entries.

You said you were doing Present Simple now. So let;s work through what you can get from the third person Present Simple form.

reñka - carries the circumflex accent, or the tvirtagalė priegaidė. That means stress will move to the ending in 1st and 2nd sg in the Present Simple, therefore we get

renkù
renkì

reñka

reñkame
reñkate
reñka

On the other hand, if the Present Simple form carries the acute accent in 3 sg, the stress will stay with the stem in 1 and 2 sg.

láukiu
láuki
láukia

láukiame
láukiate
láukia

(plural forms retain the stress of 3 sg in all cases)

The same rule (if I'm not mistaken) applies to the Past Simple. There's also another one that lets you predict the pattern across the three principal forms.

So all in all, you have to find out the accent on 3 sg Present Simple / Past Simple from which you can construct the other five forms in that tense. If it;s acute, it will stay the same across all 6 forms; if it's circumflex, it will move to the ending in 1 and 2 sg while staying the same in the 4 remaining forms.

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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-08-31, 14:52

Rokas wrote:So all in all, you have to find out the accent on 3 sg Present Simple / Past Simple from which you can construct the other five forms in that tense. If it;s acute, it will stay the same across all 6 forms; if it's circumflex, it will move to the ending in 1 and 2 sg while staying the same in the 4 remaining forms.

If it’s that simple, then I sigh with relief. :D

I think divergences in nomenclature/approach in my materials were confusing me a bit as well, but I think I’ve sorted those out now.

From what I’ve read thus far, I’ve got the impression that, once I start dealing with prefixed verbs, things will move to a different level, though. My main grammar book, for instance, reads:

Terje Mathiassen wrote:b) Prefixed Forms

The rules for accentuation are here rather complicated.


After which it plunges into a few subdivisions and their respective rules. I haven’t ‘officially’ started dealing with prefixed verbs, though, so I’ll save whatever questions I may have for when it’s time for me to. :)

Ačiū, Rokai! :)
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-09-18, 17:13

Oh, well, I certainly did not enjoy my holiday as much as I thought I would when it comes to Lithuanian. I originally planned to take a lesson a day from Beginner’s Lithuanian, which would’ve taken me at least to lesson 30, but, lo and behold!, I’m still stuck at lesson 7. :oops:

In the end, however, I decided to do something I thought I wouldn’t, namely post my exercises here for appreciation and corrections. I thought I wouldn’t because I thought they were simple and straightforward enough for me to just use exactly what I’d learnt in the lessons themselves, but, after reviewing them, I realise there’s still a lot of room for slips, mistakes, typos and the like. Since doing so has usually helped me immensely on UniLang, I suppose making Lithuanian the rule rather than the exception is something I can only benefit from, so here it goes…

Two notes:

a. I actually wanted to mark the accentuation of all words, but that’d take forever to type, and I’m not even sure how it’s going to get displayed on the forum any properly (if at all), so I thought it wasn’t worth trying after all; instead, I tried to indicate accentuation in translation and declension/conjugation exercises (since I was somewhat composing them from scratch);

b. in declension exercises, which so far have only covered singular forms, I laid out the cases as: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative; in conjugation exercises, the order is pretty much obvious though. :)

______

Pirmoji pamoka: „Mano namas“

A
1. — Kas aš esu? — Tu esi studentas.
2. — Kas yra mano tėvas? — Tavo tėvas yra mokytojas.
3. — Kas yra mano brolis? — Tavo brolis yra taip pat studentas.
4. — Kur yra mūsų namas? — Jūsų namas yra čia.
5. — Koks yra mano namas? — Tavo namas yra didelis ir gražus.
6. — Kur mes einame? — Jūs einate namo.
7. — Kas mes esame? — Jūs esate studentai.

B
1. Mano brolis yra studentas.
2. Mano brolis yra studentas.
3. Mano tėvas yra mokytojas.
4. Mano namas yra didelis ir gražus.
5. Kas yra mano tėvas?

C
1. Mes esame studentai.
2. Mano namas yra didelis.
3. Mes einame namo vakare.
4. Mes einame namo.
5. Aš esu studentas.

D
1. My brother is going home. = Màno brólis ei̇̃na namõ.
2. My father goes home. = Màno tė́vas ei̇̃na namõ.
3. My house is large. = Màno nãmas yrà di̇̀delis.
4. My brother and I are students. = Màno brólis ir̃ àš ẽsame studeñtai.
5. I am going home. = Àš einù namõ.
6. I go home. = Àš einù namõ.
7. My brother goes home. = Màno brólis ei̇̃na namõ.
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-09-18, 17:19

Antroji pamoka: „Mano šeima“

A
1. — Kas yra mano sesuo? — Tavo sesuo yra jauna mergaitė.
2. — Ar ji jau yra studentė? — Ne, ji dar nėra studentė. Ji yra mokinė.
3. — Kiek jai metų? — Jai tik dešimt metų.
4. — Kas yra mano mama? — Tavo mama yra šeimininkė.
5. — Kur dirba mano mama? — Tavo mama dirba namie.
6. — Ką ji dirba? — Ji verda pusryčius, pietus, vakarienė, valo kambarius.
7. — Kur mes esame vakare? — Vakare jūs esate namie.
8. — Kada mes esame namie? — Jūs esate namie vakare.
9. — Ką skaito mama? — Ji skaito laikraštį.
10. — Ką rašo mano tėvas? — Tavo tėvas rašo laišką.

B

1. turė́ti: turiù, turi̇̀, tùri, tùrime, tùrite, tùri.
2. valýti: valaũ, valai̇̃, vãlo, vãlome, vãlote, vãlo.
3. rašýti: rašaũ, rašai̇̃, rãšo, rãšome, rãšote, rãšo.
4. vi̇̀rti: vérdu, vérdi, vérda, vérdame, vérdate, vérda.

C
1. Mano sesuo yra jauna mergaitė.
2. Mano tėvas yra senas.
3. Mano mama yra gera šeimininkė.
4. Mes ją labai mylime.
5. Vakare mes esame namie.

D
1. My brother is a student. = Màno brólis yrà studeñtas.
2. My mother is a housekeeper. = Màno mamà yrà šeiminiñkė.
3. Our sister goes to school. = Mū́sų sesuõ ei̇̃na į mokỹklą.
4. She is a pupil. = Ji̇̀ yrà mokinė̃.
5. Where are we in the evening? = Kur̃ mẽs ẽsame vakarè?
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-09-18, 17:20

Trečioji pamoka: „Mūsų miestas“

A
1. — Kur mes gyvename? — Jūs gyvenate dideliame mieste.
2. — Kur jūs gyvenate? — Aš gyvenu Kandido Motoje.
3. — Kaip vadinasi mūsų miestas? — Jūsų miestas vadinasi Vilnius.
4. — Kas yra Lietuvos sostinė? — Lietuvos sostinė yra Vilnius.
5. — Ar miesto gatvės yra senos? — Taip, jos yra senos.
6. — Kur atvažiuoja daug studentų? — Jie atvažiuoja į miestą.
7. — Kur aš važiuoju? — Tu važiuoji į universitetą.
8. — Kuo aš važiuoju į universitetą? — Tu važiuoji į universitą autobusu.
9. — Kur yra universitetas? — Jis yra miesto centre.
10. — Kas man patinka? — Tau patinka skaityti senoje universiteto bibliotekoje.

B
1. gyvénti: gyvenù, gyveni̇̀, gyvẽna, gyvẽname, gyvẽnate, gyvẽna.
2. važiúoti: važiúoju, važiúoji, važiúoja, važiúojame, važiúojate, važiúoja.
3. atvažiúoti: atvažiúoju, atvažiúoji, atvažiúoja, atvažiúojame, atvažiúojate, atvažiúoja.
4. studijúoti: studijúoju, studijúoji, studijúoja, studijúojame, studijúojate, studijúoja.
5. pati̇̀kti: patinkù, patinki̇̀, patiñka, patiñkame, patiñkate, patiñka.

C
1. miẽstas, miẽsto, miẽstui, miẽstą, miestù, miestè, miẽste.
2. sóstinė, sóstinės, sóstinei, sóstinę, sóstine, sóstinėje, sóstine.
3. gãtvė, gãtvės, gãtvei, gãtvę, gatvè, gãtvėje, gãtve.
4. studeñtas, studeñto, studeñtui, studeñtą, studentù, studentè, studeñte.
5. autobùsas, autobùso, autobùsui, autobùsą, autobusù, autobusè, autobùse.
6. ceñtras, ceñtro, ceñtrui, ceñtrą, centrù, centrè, ceñtre.
7. Lietuvà, Lietuvõs, Li̇́etuvai, Li̇́etuvą, Li̇́etuva, Lietuvojè, Li̇́́etuva.

D
1. Jis važiuoja sena gatve.
2. Mes gyvename mieste.
3. Universitetas yra miesto centre.
4. Į miestą atvažiuoja studentai.
5. Aš važiuoju namo.

E
1. He lives in a city. = Ji̇̀s gyvẽna miestè.
2. He likes the city. = Jám patiñka miẽstas.
3. He likes the university. = Jám patiñka universitètas.
4. We like the city. = Mùms patiñka miẽstas.
5. We like the capital. = Mùms patiñka sóstinė.
6. We go by bus. = Mẽs ei̇̃name autobusù.
7. The student goes by bus to the university. = Studeñtas ei̇̃na į universitètą autobusù.
8. The university is very old. = Universitètas yrà labai̇̃ sẽnas.
9. Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania. = Vi̇̀lnius yrà Lietuvõs sóstinė.
10. We like to read in the library. = Mùms patiñka skaitýti bibliotèkoje.
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-09-18, 17:23

Ketvirtoji pamoka: „Ugnis“

A
1. — Be ko žmogus negali gyventi? — Žmogus negali gyventi be ugnies.
2. — Kur dega ugnis? — Ugnis dega krosnyje.
3. — Ką ugnis šildo? — Ugnis šildo namą.
4. — Kas padėjo sukurti kulturą ir civilizaciją? — Kulturą ir civilizaciją padėjo sukurti ugnis.
5. — Kur yra krosnis? — Ji yra tavo name.
6. — Kas yra labai reikalinga? — Labai reikalinga yra ugnis. Krosnis yra taip pat labai reikalinga.

B
1. ausi̇̀s, ausiẽs, aũsiai, aũsį, ausimi̇̀, ausyjè, ausiẽ.
2. nósis, nósies, nósiai, nósį, nósimi, nósyje, nósie.
3. krósnis, krósnies, krósniai, krósnį, krósnimi, krósnyje, krósnie.
4. vagi̇̀s, vagiẽs, vãgiui, vãgį, vagimi̇̀, vagyjè, vagiẽ.

C
1. Mes rašome laiška.
2. Jie yra namie.
3. Jos skaito knygą.
4. Mes einame namo.
5. Jos dirba namie.
6. Jos dega name.
7. Jos šildo namą.
8. Be ugnies mes negalime gyventi.

D
1. I cannot live without fire. = Àš negaliù gyvénti bè ugniẽs.
2. Fire is very necessary. = Ugni̇̀s yrà labai̇̃ reikali̇̀nga.
3. He cannot live without fire. = Ji̇̀s negãli gyvénti bè ugniẽs.
4. In my house there is a new stove. = Màno namè yrà naujà krósnis.
5. My stove is new. = Màno krósnis yrà naujà.
6. Our stove is pretty. = Mū́sų krósnis yrà graži̇̀.
7. A fire is burning in the stove. = Krósnyje dẽga ugni̇̀s.
8. We cannot live without a stove. = Mẽs negãlime gyvénti bè krósnies.
9. We cannot live without fire. = Mẽs negãlime gyvénti bè ugniẽs.
10. I like the new stove. = Mán patiñka naujà krósnis.
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Psi-Lord
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-09-18, 17:24

Penktoji pamoka: review

A
1. I like our house. = Man patinka mūsų namas.
2. We like our city. = Mums patinka mūsų miestas.
3. They like the capital. = Jiems patinka sostinė.
4. I like the university. = Man patinka universitetas.
5. We like her house. = Mums patinka jos namas.

B
1. I live at home. = Aš gyvenu namie.
2. They study in a city. = Jie studijuoja mieste.
3. We cannot live in the city. = Mes negalime gyventi mieste.
4. I live not at home. = Aš gyvenu ne namie.
5. They study at the university. = Jie studijuoja universitete.
6. We cannot live at a university. = Mes negalime gyventi universitete.

C
1. I read a newspaper. = Aš skaitau laikraštį.
2. We read the newspaper. = Mes skaitome laikraštį.
3. She reads a letter. = Ji skaito laišką.
4. Mr Valys reads a book. = Ponas Valys skaito knygą.
5. Mr Valys and Mr Žukas read a newspaper. = Ponas Valys ir ponas Žukas skaito laikraštį.
6. Petras and Jonas read the newspaper. = Petras ir Jonas skaito laikraštį.
7. They are reading a letter. = Jie skaito laišką.
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nesos
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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby nesos » 2013-09-24, 10:28

Psi-Lord wrote:Trečioji pamoka: „Mūsų miestas“

6. We go by bus. = Mẽs ei̇̃name autobusù.
7. The student goes by bus to the university. = Studeñtas ei̇̃na į universitètą autobusù.

Mẽs važiuojame autobusù.
Studeñtas važiuoja į universitètą autobusù.

Eiti -- to walk, to go/come by legs. Važiuoti -- to go/come by wheels. Actually there are no exact equivalents for to go and to come in Lithuanian. You needs to consider a mode of transportation on translation: plaukti -- to swim, to travel on ship, skristi -- to fly, to travel on plane, joti -- to travel on a back of some animal etc.

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Re: Lietuvių kalba - Psi-Lord

Postby Psi-Lord » 2013-12-23, 18:50

For some reason, I totally missed nesos’s response! :oops:

nesos wrote:Eiti -- to walk, to go/come by legs. Važiuoti -- to go/come by wheels. Actually there are no exact equivalents for to go and to come in Lithuanian. You needs to consider a mode of transportation on translation: plaukti -- to swim, to travel on ship, skristi -- to fly, to travel on plane, joti -- to travel on a back of some animal etc.

Oh, I remember forgetting about that in Russian many, many years ago! And it’s such a basic concept that it’s almost embarrassing to miss it! :oops: :D
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