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Aspect in Bulgarian. - UniLang

Aspect in Bulgarian.

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duko
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Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby duko » 2006-07-04, 12:03

Hi, zdravejte!

got a problem: what's the imperfective aspect for спя?
I would have thought that it is "спавам", but it seems it isn't.

Are there any peculiarities about verb aspect in Bulgarian?
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Postby avataar » 2006-07-07, 15:53

Здрасти,

спя is an imperfective verb already: аз спя, ти спиш in the present. Is it possible you mean perfective instead? Such a verb from спя doesn't exist. Sleeping in general is a continuous process, hence always imperfective. There are verbs like заспя (to fall asleep), поспя [си] (to sleep for some time), наспя се (to sleep for some time and satisfy your need for sleep) which are perfective, but that often happens with imperfective verbs (спя, чета) when you add a prefix (заспя, прочета). Such verbs have imperfective forms like заспивам, поспивам си, наспивам се, прочитам. Note that *спивам, *читам are not standalone verbs but they remind of the Serbian forms спавам and читам. The peculiarities come from the more archaic verb system in Bulgarian when compared to the other Slavic languages. Particularly puzzling can be perfective verbs in the imperfect and imperfective ones in the aorist. I can tell you more about that if you want.
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Postby duko » 2006-07-11, 8:35

Ahaa, thank you, I suspected that спя is imperfective. It was confusing to me because of the Slovak forms
ja spím
ja spávam
Or the Serbian counterparts you mentioned.


Let's see if I got it right. If I want to sleep in my room,

imperfective: From today I will sleep in my room.
Ot dneska shte spja vyv mojata staja.

perfective: This night I will sleep in my room.
Tazi nosht shte se naspja vyv mojata staja.
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Postby avataar » 2006-07-12, 8:37

Я(з) спим is also West Bulgarian dialect.

imperfective: From today I will sleep in my room.
Ot dneska shte spja vyv mojata staja.

perfective: This night I will sleep in my room.
Tazi nosht shte se naspja vyv mojata staja.

I'm not sure what you want to say with the 2nd sentence, I'd suspect you mean Тази нощ ще спя в моята стая. (side note: своята instead of моята would be nicer there, or even в стаята си). I.e. it's perfectly fine to use an imperfective verb there. Тази нощ ще се наспя в моята стая means "Tonight I will sleep in my room and get enough sleep" while the former sentence means just "Tonight I will sleep in my room". As I said sleeping is an inherently infinite process, so when you refer to in general (i.e. no extra info like sleeping enough, falling asleep, etc) it's an imperfective action.
Ein ring skal styra deim,
ein ring skal finna deim.
Ein ring tvinga deim
og i myrker binda deim
i landet Mordor der skuggane rår.

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Postby duko » 2006-07-12, 10:10

Ok, sega go razbiram, blagodarja. Az vinagi si mislja che da spish vednyzh (kato edna nosht) e perfektiv. Ochevidno po bylgarski ne e taka :)

Po slovashki mozhe, primerno:

Prvýkrát v živote neviem, kde budem spať nasledujúcu noc...
Toto je kuchynka, toto izba, kde budem spávat', ...

Prevodi:

Po pyrvija pyt v zhivota si ne znam, kyde shte spja v sledvashtata nosht.
Tazi e kuhnjata, tazi e stajata, kyde shte spja, ....

:D Az si go mislja po slovashki - mojat roden ezik - ami ne mozhe da se prevezhda edno ha edno.
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Re:

Postby Psi-Lord » 2008-11-15, 17:28

avataar wrote:Particularly puzzling can be perfective verbs in the imperfect and imperfective ones in the aorist. I can tell you more about that if you want.

I just happened to stumble across those concepts somewhere around http://www.hf.uio.no/ilos/studier/studenttjenester/Nettressurser/bulg/mat/gram/index.html, and remembered how I found that overtly puzzling years ago, when I started studying and learning more about Slavic aspectual differences.

Not that this particular Bulgarian bit of imperfect perfectives and aorist imperfectives doesn’t sound puzzling anymore, hehe.
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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby Aurinĭa » 2008-11-27, 15:45

Could someone explain the basic difference between perfect and imperfect and when to use what? We have a test next week and I don't really understand it. It was explained only very briefly in class, because the others all know Russian.
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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby duko » 2008-11-27, 16:07

http://www.hf.uio.no/ilos/studier/studenttjenester/Nettressurser/bulg/mat/gram/603aspec.html
This page explains it very nicely. The gist of it is:
perfective implies a single completed action. imperfective is for the rest.
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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby Aurinĭa » 2008-12-02, 18:16

So the normal tense is imperfective?? If you don't know what to use, is it best to go for imperfective?

And another question: how do you know how to conjugate a verb (е/и)? Do all verbs on -я get и? Which is most common (and should I use if I'm not sure)?
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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby duko » 2008-12-03, 8:43

Well, I wouldn't want to offend the perfective aspect and call it not normal :) If the action it describes is a single completed action, then it is perfective. Otherwise, default to imperfective.
"I saw a movie" would be perfective. "I saw all Blackadder series" is not.
I don't really understand the second question, hopefully someone with a more comprehensive knowledge of grammar will help us here.
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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby Lietmotiv » 2008-12-18, 0:16

melan wrote:Could someone explain the basic difference between perfect and imperfect and when to use what? We have a test next week and I don't really understand it. It was explained only very briefly in class, because the others all know Russian.


I can explain in Russian. For example imagine a group workers,after finishing a building: Мы строили, строили , и наконец построили ( We were building,building and in the end we built).
But if there's no time adverbial in a phrase you can also use the imperfective form.
Я смотрел этот фильм and я посмотрел этот фильм ; same meaning . In Russian(don't know about Bulgarian) the perfective is also used for expressing the 'simple future' ,except for the imperfective way of expressing compose future with быть. But Bulgarian grammar is like so different from the Russian grammar so if you want to learn how the Bulgarian aspect works ,you should ask a Bulgarian to explain it to you. I forgot all the Bulgarian I learnt during the time I worked in Bulgaria.

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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby Arcane » 2008-12-18, 15:16

Conjugation of Bulgarian Verbs

Some of you know this already but once again, what you have to look out for is the present stem morpheme. This is the morpheme at the end of the verb in 3rd person singular, Present Tense. According to that rule, verbs fall into 3 categories:

I Conjugation: пише
(to write)
пиша
пишеш
пише

пишем
пишете
пишат

II Conjugation: мисли
(to think)
мисля
мислиш
мисли

мислим
мислите
мислят

III Conjugation: гледа, стреля
(to watch and to shoot respectively)

We have two variations here because the sound "я" is most frequently pronounced [ja] (a iotated vowel) and it ends in [a], so the different letter shouldn't distract you. It's the same conjugation.

гледам
гледаш
гледа

гледаме
гледате
гледат

Most of the verbs from III Conjugation end in -м in 1st person singular, Present Tense: стрелям (to shoot), искам (I want), рисувам (I draw), бягам (I run), but there are also exceptions like знам (I know) that falls into I Conjugation - знае (he/she/it knows).

melan wrote: Do all verbs on -я get и? Which is most common (and should I use if I'm not sure)?


I guess you mean the verbs in 1st person singular that end in -я. I went through quite a lot of verbs ending in -я in my mind and most of them do get an -и in 3rd person singular. But I found an exception: verbs that have a vowel preceding я. Like вея (I blow - for wind) , пея (I sing), беснея (I rave). There is a rule for sure but I don't know it. I just know that each conjugation has some subcategories I'm not familiar with. A very useful book would be "Практическа българска граматика" Петър Пашов ("Practical Bulgarian Grammar" by Petar Pashov). Unfortunately I don't have it with me here in Sofia. When I get home, I'll try to find it because it has answers to all the questions you ask, guys. Here you can find a comprehensive list of grammars and reference books for South-Slavic languages.

But again, the verb form in 3rd person singular is the important one. Otherwise you may get really messed up.

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Re: Aspect in Bulgarian.

Postby copysan » 2012-03-26, 9:08

Bulgarian verbs are the most complicated part of Bulgarian grammar, especially when compared to other Slavic languages. They are inflected for person, number and sometimes gender. They also have lexical aspect (perfective and imperfective), voice, nine tenses, three moods,[note 1] four evidentials and six non-finite verbal forms. Because the subject of the verb can be inferred from the verb ending, it is often omitted. As there is no infinitive in the contemporary Bulgarian language the basic form of a verb is its present simple tense first person singular form.
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