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O - Page 3 - UniLang

O

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-01-24, 18:37

I'm afraid it was a nine days' wonder :| ...

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 16:36

I've decided to resume my conlang. And to inaugurate my new beginning, I made a spelling reform and touched up the phonology of O (I eliminated [h], [r̥], [ʁ] and [ʃ] and added [y]).

a - [a]
aa - [a:]
c - [k]
cc ---> g - [g]
ch - [x]
c·c ---> cc - [k:]
e - [e]
ê - [ɛ]
ee - [e:]
êê - [ɛ:]
w - [f]
ww - [f:]
h - [h]
hc ---> gh - [χ]
hh ---> h - [ħ]
hl - [ɬ]
hr - [r̥]
hs - [ʃ]
ht - [ð]
hz - [ʂ]
i - [i], [j] before another vowel
j - [j]
ï - [i] before another vowel
ii - [i:]
l - [l]
ll - [l:]
m - [m], [ɱ] before w and v
mm - [m:]
n - [n], [ŋ] before c and g
nn - [n:]
o - [o]
ô - [ɔ]
oo - [o:]
ôô - [ɔ:]
r - [r], it can become [ɾ] when it's intervocalic.
rh - [ʀ]
rr - [ʁ]
r·r ---> rr - [r:]
s - [s]
ss ---> ç - [ç]
s·s ---> ss - [s:]
t - [t]
tt - [θ]
t·t ---> t-t - [t:]
u - [u], [w] before another vowel
ü - [u] before another vowel
uu - [u:]
v - [v]
vv - [v:]
y - [y]
yy - [y:]
z - [ʦ]
zz - [ʦ:]

Moreover the interpunct has been replaced by the dash ( - ).

Soon, I'll make a list of words written with the new spelling (or changed because of the lost phonemes).
Last edited by IpseDixit on 2015-03-20, 20:31, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 16:48

Random words

wrêmsi ['frɛmsi] - fire
grêno ['grɛno] - water
hummahz ['ħum:aʂ] - earth (the element, not the planet nor the ground)
hlovrr ['ɬɔvr:] - air

chêmi ['xɛmi] - sun
hlômi ['ɬɔmi] - moon
riêni [ri'ɛni] - star
ghemêa [χe'mɛa] - sky
wluumi ['flu:mi] - cloud
mluhzi ['mluʂi] - wind

glôma ['glɔma] - ground
hzlôvottar [ʂlɔ'voθar] - flower
uhêa [uħ'ɛa] - grass
armur ['armur] - forest
môr-htar ['mɔrðar] - tree
ch-luhzi ['xluʂi] - leaf

esêa [es'ɛa] - sea
çlahl ['çlaɬ] - wave (of the sea)
môsminni [mɔs'min:i] - river
evlinni [ev'lin:i] - stream
ghômmutt ['χɔm:uθ] - lake

ônar ['ɔnar] - day (sunlight hours)
ttluma ['θluma] - night
rüômi [ruɔmi] - day (sunlight hours) + night
zlimi ['ʦlimi] - morning
srimi ['srimi] - afternoon
ghigh ['χiχ] - evening
ônar-htum [ɔn'arðum] - sunset
ttluma-htum [θlu'maðum]- sunrise

lêmi ['lɛmi] - peace
ttlissa ['θlis:a]- war
liannir [li'an:ir]- life
rhumintu [ʀumintu] - death
glesmunna [gles'mun:a] - illness
teluma [te'luma] - wisdom
tlêuma ['tlɛuma] - knowledge
sliihtach ['sli:ðax] - hope
ttlivma ['θlivma] - happiness
rhêsmar ['ʀɛsmar] - sadness
zlêsnir ['t͜slɛsnir]- ignorance
eleswjonti [eles'fjonti] - blissfulness
ttvêssi [θvɛs:i]- health
werunntar [fer'un:tar] - zeal
usmintah [us'mintaħ]- darkness
zramu ['t͜sramu]- light
ghasminnar [χas'min:ar]- cruelty
riimi ['ri:mi] - malice
ottmênni [ɔθ'mɛn:i]- courage
zelumigh [t͜se'lumiχ]- power
wrêmsar ['frɛmsar] - victory
swjontich ['sfjontix] - observation
ch-lêmmigh ['xlɛm:iχ] - beginning
urunta [u'runta]- end
hloismi [ɬo'ismi] - middle

Greetings, courtesy words

hlion [ɬi'on] - hello/hi/bye
ônar rhauch ['ɔnar 'ʀaux] - good day
zlimi rhauch ['ʦlimi 'ʀaux] - good morning
srimi rhauch ['srimi 'ʀaux] - good afternoon
hcihc erhauch ['χiχ 'eʀaux] - good evening
ttluma rhauch ['θluma 'ʀaux] - good night
hzliima ['ʂli:ma] - thanks / thank you
uvmah ['uvmaħ] - sorry
çumm ['çum:] - excuse me

Some prepositions

ru ['ru] - in/inside/at
runni ['run:i] - out /outside
chmi ['xmi] - with
zmi ['ʦmi] - without
vami ['vami] - up / on / above
chami ['xami] - down / under / below
u [u] - for
rinni ['rin:i] - through
ônni ['ɔn:i] - between / among

Prepositions require the accusative except for definite singular, in that case the particle of the accusative is omitted.

Some Conjunctions

wi ['fi]- and
hzomu ['ʂɔmu ] - or (exclusive disjunction)
laru ['laru] - or (inclusive disjunction)
nuri ['nuri] - but
uuvi ['u:vi]- however
sêghma ['sɛχma]- despite
gelumi [ge'lumi]- nonetheless
Last edited by IpseDixit on 2015-03-20, 11:37, edited 6 times in total.

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Re: O

Postby Koko » 2015-03-19, 18:06

Yay!

Is gender only present in pronouns?
 (it) Correggimi per favore (se lo sbaglio è grave, sennò non correggermi perché potrei correggermelo da solo)  (bg) Българският не е руски  (cs) Jsem krásný jazyk. :D ^^

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 18:08

Koko wrote:Is gender only present in pronouns?

Yep.

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Re: O

Postby linguoboy » 2015-03-19, 18:17

Those seem like awkward forms for pronouns if your language isn't pro-drop (which, going from the samples you posted earlier, I assume it isn't). I find it hard to imagine that words which are used in every single sentence wouldn't be more worn down. Are there any clitic forms in use?
"Richmond is a real scholar; Owen just learns languages because he can't bear not to know what other people are saying."--Margaret Lattimore on her two sons

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 18:28

Those seem like awkward forms for pronouns if your language isn't pro-drop (which, going from the samples you posted earlier, I assume it isn't). I find it hard to imagine that words which are used in every single sentence wouldn't be more worn down. Are there any clitic forms in use?


Omg, you read my mind. Yes, I think I'll either shorten those pronouns or create a set of clitic pronouns. I was also considering to eliminate gender for pronouns too...

---

So, here are the new pronouns, they're both subject and object and have no gender distinction.

y - I, me
ês - you (singular)
jus - he, him, she, her, it
yn - we, us (inclusive)
ynni - we, us (exclusive)
ên - you (plural)
jun - they, them

Subject pronouns always come before the verb, whereas object pronouns always come after.

For reasons of emphasis the object pronoun can be united to the subject with a dash and hence come before the noun.

For example:

y mlin ês - I want you
y-ês mlin - I want you / it's you that I want
Last edited by IpseDixit on 2015-03-19, 18:56, edited 3 times in total.

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Re: O

Postby Koko » 2015-03-19, 18:40

The clitics could be the first component (syllable) of the full pronouns.

Ex. êvliven— I live
lewse— you are (since you're considering taking out the grammar, the feminine forms (syllables in -w) could be used before unvoiced consonants)
etc...
 (it) Correggimi per favore (se lo sbaglio è grave, sennò non correggermi perché potrei correggermelo da solo)  (bg) Българският не е руски  (cs) Jsem krásný jazyk. :D ^^

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 18:46

Koko wrote:The clitics could be the first component (syllable) of the full pronouns.

Ex. êvliven— I live
lewse— you are (since you're considering taking out the grammar, the feminine forms (syllables in -w) could be used before unvoiced consonants)
etc...


I decided to create a brand new set of pronouns (see above).

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 20:42

VERB CONJUGATIONS (REVISITED)

O verbs are conjugated only for number. Therefore O is not pro-drop.

INFINITIVE

There are two groups of conjugations in O.

I groupII group
-isi -êsi


The other tenses are formed by adding suffixes to the root of the verb.

PRESENT

I group
SingularPlural
-in -imi


II group
SingularPlural
-en -êmi


PAST

I group
SingularPlural
-un -vu


II group
SingularPlural
-êni -vêu


FUTURE

I group
SingularPlural
-isin -isinno


II group
SingularPlural
-êsin -êsno


Passive form

You need to add the prefix i- for the passive form.

Reflexive form

Add the prefix me-.

---

Ok, I wanted to add some more info about tenses.

O tenses are very minimal because there is just one present, one past and one future.

The present covers these English tenses: simple present, present progressive, present perfect simple and present perfect progressive.

The past covers the simple past, past progressive, past perfect simple and past perfect progressive.

The future covers the future simple, the "going to" future, future continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous.

There is no subjunctive and I'm not even sure I'll create a conditional form.

The infinitive is also the gerund.

VERB "TO BE"

To be is an irregular verb.

infinitive: sên ['sɛn]
present: se ['se] for every person.

VERB "TO HAVE"

infinitive: livêsi [li'vɛsi]
present: sing: liven ['liven] ; plur: livêmi [li'vɛmi]
Last edited by IpseDixit on 2015-03-20, 13:24, edited 9 times in total.

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-19, 21:39

New Words

srôgvos ['srɔgvos] - tomb
yhmi ['yħmi] - shrine
hlighi ['ɬiχi] - temple
nyrril ['nyr:il] - castle
mêgvis ['mɛgvis] - tower
annirro ['an:ir:o] - wall
celiw [ce'lif] - bridge
yônna ['yɔn:a] - throne
geligi [ge'ligi] - armour
çivsi ['çivsi] - sword
uhlig ['uɬig]- ax
guhin [gu'hin]- catapult
chmaghin ['xmaχin] - battering ram

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Re: O

Postby IpseDixit » 2015-03-20, 11:25

DECLENSIONS (REVISITED)

NOMINATIVE PARTICLES

Definite
SingularPlural
i ci


Indefinite
SingularPlural
ti


An example:

i nyrril - the castle, ci nyrril - the forests
nyrril - a castle, ti nyrril - some castles

GENITIVE PARTICLES

Definite
SingularPlural
wregre


Indefinite
SingularPlural
rehze


wre nyrril - of the castle, gre nyrril - of the castles
re nyrril - of a castle, hze nyrril - of some castles

DATIVE PARTICLES

Definite
SingularPlural
aram


Indefinite
SingularPlural
airaur


ar nyrril - to the castle, am nyrril - to the castles
air nyrril - to a castle, aur nyrril - to some castles

ACCUSATIVE PARTICLES

Definite
SingularPlural
viimi


Indefinite
SingularPlural
ninimi


for example:

y êlin vi nyrril - I see the castle
y êlin imi nyrril - I see the castles
y êlin ni nyrril - I see a castle
y êlin nimi nyrril - I see some castles

êlin = present of êlisi - to see]

If the following name begins with a vowel, the particles which end in a vowel can lose it and get attached to the noun with a dash. This rule isn't mandatory and the entire form is accepted too.

E.g

y êlin v-armur
y êlin im-armur
y êlin n-armur
y êlin nim-armur.

Proper names do not get the definite particle in the nominative and accusative.


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